Statins Double Risk of Dementia, Are Linked to COVID Deaths

Statins Double Risk of Dementia, Are Linked to COVID Deaths

The use of statin cholesterol-lowering medications has been on the rise for decades1 and they are among the most widely used drugs in the world. In the U.S., close to 50% of U.S. adults over 75 years old take a statin2 to lower their cholesterol in the misguided hope of preventing heart disease, heart attacks and stroke.

Not only is there strong evidence suggesting that statins are a colossal waste of money, but their use may also harm your brain health –; more than doubling your risk of dementia in some cases.3

The benefit must clearly outweigh the risk when it comes to any drug treatment, but this is rarely the case with statins, which do not protect against cardiovascular disease and are linked to a number of health conditions4,5 including dementia, diabetes6 and even increased risk of death from COVID-19.7

Statins Doubled Risk of Developing Dementia

Statins”; effects on cognitive performance have previously been called into question, since lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are linked to a higher risk of dementia.8 The featured study, published in The Journal of Nuclear Medicine,9 involved people with mild cognitive impairment and looked into the effects of two types of statins: hydrophilic and lipophilic.

Hydrophilic statins, which include pravastatin (Pravachol) and rosuvastatin (Crestor), dissolve more readily in water, while lipophilic statins, such as atorvastatin (Lipitor), simvastatin (Zocor), Fluvastatin (Lescol), and lovastatin (Altoprev), dissolve more readily in fats.10 Lipophilic statins can easily enter cells11 and be distributed throughout your body, whereas hydrophilic statins focus on the liver.12

According to study author Prasanna Padmanabham of the University of California, Los Angeles, “;There have been many conflicting studies on the effects of statin drugs on cognition. While some claim that statins protect users against dementia, others assert that they accelerate the development of dementia. Our study aimed to clarify the relationship between statin use and subject”;s long-term cognitive trajectory.”;13

Subjects were divided into groups based on cognitive status, cholesterol levels and type of statin used, and followed for eight years. Those with early mild cognitive impairment and low to moderate cholesterol levels at the start of the study who used lipophilic statins had more than double the risk of dementia compared to those who did not use statins.14

Further, this group also had significant decline in metabolism of the brain”;s posterior cingulate cortex, which is the brain region that declines most significantly in early Alzheimer”;s disease.15

Your Brain Needs Cholesterol

About 25% to 30% of your body”;s total cholesterol is found in your brain, where it is an essential part of neurons. In your brain, cholesterol helps develop and maintain the plasticity and function of your neurons,16 and data from the Shanghai Aging Study revealed that high levels of LDL cholesterol are inversely associated with dementia in those aged 50 years and over.

“;High level of LDL-C may be considered as a potential protective factor against cognition decline,”; the researchers noted.17 They compiled a number of mechanisms on why lower cholesterol may be damaging for brain health, including the fact that lower cholesterol is linked with higher mortality in the elderly and may occur alongside malnutrition and chronic diseases, including cancer. As it specifically relates to brain health, however, they suggested:18

Decreasing cholesterol levels in the elderly may be associated with cerebral atrophy, which occurs with dementia
High LDL cholesterol may be beneficial by reducing neurons”; impairments or helping repair injured neurons
Acceleration of neurodegeneration has occurred when neurons were short on cellular cholesterol or cholesterol supply
Cholesterol plays an important role in the synthesis, transportation and metabolism of steroid hormones and lipid-soluble vitamins, and both of these are important to synaptic integrity and neurotransmission

Lower cholesterol levels were also associated with worse cognitive function among South Korean study participants aged 65 and over, and were considered to be a “;state marker for AD [Alzheimer”;s disease].”;19

A U.S. study of more than 4,300 Medicare recipients aged 65 and over also revealed that higher levels of total cholesterol were associated with a decreased risk of Alzheimer”;s disease, even after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and other related variables.20

Statins Increase Death Risk From COVID-19

The risks to brain health are only one red flag tied to statins. A concerning link was also uncovered among statins, diabetes and an increased risk of severe disease from COVID-19.21 Among patients with Type 2 diabetes admitted to a hospital for COVID-19, those taking statins had significantly higher mortality rates from COVID-19 within seven days and 28 days compared to those not taking the drugs.

The researchers acknowledged those taking statins were older, more frequently male and often had more comorbidities, including high blood pressure, heart failure and complications of diabetes. However, despite the limitations, the researchers found enough evidence in the over 2,400 participants to conclude:22

“;…; our present results do not support the hypothesis of a protective role of routine statin use against COVID-19, at least not in hospitalized patients with T2DM (Type 2 diabetes mellitus).

Indeed, the potentially deleterious effects of routine statin treatment on COVID-19-related mortality demands further investigation and, as recently highlighted, only appropriately designed and powered randomized controlled trials will be able to properly address this important issue.”;

Statins Double –; or Triple –; Diabetes Risk

A connection already exists between statins and diabetes, to the extent that people who take statins are more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with diabetes than those who do not, and those who take the drugs for longer than two years have more than triple the risk.23,24

“;The fact that increased duration of statin use was associated with an increased risk of diabetes –; something we call a dose-dependent relationship –; makes us think that this is likely a causal relationship,”; study author Victoria Zigmont, a graduate researcher in public health at The Ohio State University in Columbus, said in a news release.25

The data also indicated that individuals taking statin medications had a 6.5% increased risk of high blood sugar as measured by hemoglobin A1c value,26 which is an average level of blood sugar measuring the past 60 to 90 days.

Researchers with the Erasmus Medical Center in The Netherlands also analyzed data from more than 9,500 patients, finding those who had ever used statins had a 38% higher risk of Type 2 diabetes, with the risk being higher in those with impaired glucose homeostasis and those who were overweight or obese.27

The researchers concluded, “;Individuals using statins may be at higher risk for hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and eventually Type 2 diabetes. Rigorous preventive strategies such as glucose control and weight reduction in patients when initiating statin therapy might help minimize the risk of diabetes.”;

But a far better strategy may be preventing insulin resistance in the first place, by avoiding statin drugs and eating a healthy diet. According to Dr. Aseem Malhotra, an interventional cardiologist consultant in London, U.K. –; who has been attacked for being a “;statin denier“; after calling out the drugs”; side effects28 –; and a colleague:29

“;In young adults, preventing insulin resistance could prevent 42% of myocardial infarctions, a larger reduction than correcting hypertension (36 %), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (31 %), body mass index (BMI) (21 %) or LDL-C (16 %).30

It is plausible that the small benefits of statins in the prevention of CVD come from pleiotropic effects which are independent of LDL-lowering. The focus in primary prevention should therefore be on foods and food groups that have a proven benefit in reducing hard endpoints and mortality.”;

The Statin Scam

Even as saturated fats and cholesterol have been vilified, and statin drugs have become among the most widely prescribed medications worldwide, heart disease remains a top killer.31 Today, statin drugs to reduce cholesterol levels are recommended for four broad patient populations:32

Those who have already had a cardiovascular event
Adults with diabetes
Individuals with LDL cholesterol levels ≥190 mg/dL
Individuals with an estimated 10-year cardiovascular risk ≥7.5% (based on an algorithm that uses your age, gender, blood pressure, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), race and history of diabetes to predict the likelihood you’ll experience a heart attack in the coming 10 years)

Despite statins being prescribed for these sizable groups, and “;target”; cholesterol levels being achieved, a systematic review of 35 randomized, controlled trials found that no additional benefits were gained. According to an analysis in BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine:33

“;Recommending cholesterol lowering treatment based on estimated cardiovascular risk fails to identify many high-risk patients and may lead to unnecessary treatment of low-risk individuals. The negative results of numerous cholesterol lowering randomized controlled trials call into question the validity of using low density lipoprotein cholesterol as a surrogate target for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.”;

Even in the case of recurrent cardiovascular events, despite the increase in statin use from 1999 to 2013, researchers writing in BMC Cardiovascular Disorders noted, “;there was only a small decrease in the incidence of recurrent CVD, and this occurred mainly in older patients without statins prescribed.”;34

Statins Won”;t Protect Your Heart Health

Statins are effective at lowering cholesterol, but whether this is the panacea for helping you avoid heart disease and extend your lifespan is a topic of heated debate. Again in 2018, a scientific review presented substantial evidence that high LDL and total cholesterol are not an indication of heart disease risk, and that statin treatment is of doubtful benefit as a form of primary prevention for this reason.35

In short, these drugs have done nothing to derail the rising trend of heart disease, while putting users at increased risk of health conditions like diabetes, dementia and others, such as:

Triple risk of coronary artery and aortic artery calcification38
Musculoskeletal disorders, including myalgia, muscle weakness, muscle cramps, rhabdomyolysis and autoimmune muscle disease39

In the event you”;re taking statins, be aware that they deplete your body of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and inhibit the synthesis of vitamin K2. The risks of CoQ10 depletion can be somewhat offset by taking a Coenzyme Q10 supplement or, if you’re over 40, its reduced form ubiquinol. But ultimately, if you”;re looking to protect both your brain and heart health, avoiding statin drugs and instead optimizing your diet may be the answer.

Read more:

How to count (and track) macros for fat loss, muscle gain, and better health

How to count (and track) macros for fat loss, muscle gain, and better health

What are macros? | How to calculate your macros | How to track your macros | Macros troubleshooting and FAQs | What to eat on a macro diet | How to measure portions | Macros and consistency | Macros for weight loss | Macros and alcohol

Lose weight, gain muscle, and perform better.
But in exchange, you have to do math.

Still with us?

Then maybe you”;d like to learn how to count macros.

Counting macros is a way to track food intake using grams of protein, carbs, and fats (macronutrients) instead of calories.

The advantage of focusing on macronutrients over calories is that it tells you a bit more about the quality of your food, and how it affects your body.

The disadvantage of tracking macros is that you have to plan, measure, and record everything you eat. And then you have to do math to add up your macronutrient tallies at the end of each day.

For most people, that can be a bit confusing and intimidating, especially when you first get started.

That”;s why we created this comprehensive guide to everything macros.

You”;ll learn:

What macronutrients are and what foods contain them
How to calculate and track your personal macronutrients
Why macronutrients aren”;t the full story when it comes to health
Who macronutrient tracking works best for (and who it doesn’t)

Let”;s go.

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What are macros, anyway?

Macros, or macronutrients, are large groups of nutrients.

There are three main macronutrients: Protein, carbohydrates, and fat.

(Technically, alcohol is a fourth macronutrient, but nutrition plans don”;t focus on it because it doesn”;t offer much in terms of health benefits.)

Most foods and beverages are made up of a combination of these three macronutrients. But many foods have one dominant macronutrient that provides the majority of the calories.

For example:

Brown rice is mostly carbohydrate but also has a bit of protein and fat.
Cashews are mostly fat but also contain protein and a bit of carb.
Lean chicken breast is mostly protein but also contains some fat. It doesn”;t contain any carbohydrates.

Each macronutrient provides a certain number of calories:

1 gram of protein = 4 calories
1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories
1 gram of fat = 9 calories
(1 gram of alcohol = 7 calories)

As a result, tracking macros means you”;re automatically tracking calories.

Why are macronutrients important?

Your body breaks down macronutrients to perform specific jobs in the body.

For example:

Proteins break down into amino acids, which can affect our muscle composition, and are involved in creating mood-regulating neurotransmitters.
Carbohydrates break down into sugars, which give us energy for immediate use, but also storage.
Fats break down into fatty acids, which help form certain structures of our body, like our brain, nervous system, and cell walls.

So, in addition to impacting your body weight and composition, macronutrients can impact how you feel, perform, and even behave.

How to calculate your macros

If you”;re eager to get your personalized macros plan, a heads up before you start:

Once you get your macro numbers, you”;ll want to stick to them for at least two weeks.

It takes that long to determine whether any changes you notice are due to your plan working (or not working), or just regular body fluctuations.

After two weeks, you can evaluate how things are going, and adjust your calories / macros up or down as needed. All of the methods below provide estimates of your daily calorie and macro needs, so in most cases, it takes some experimenting before you find what works for you.

Ok, let”;s crunch those numbers.

Step 1: Calculate your energy (calorie) needs.

Macro counting is based on the calories in, calories out (CICO) principle: When you take in more energy than you burn, you gain weight, and when you take in less energy than you burn, you lose weight.

(Learn why CICO is indisputable: Calories in vs. out? Or hormones? The debate is finally over.)

So before you work out your macros, you have to figure out your energy (calorie) requirements, based on your body, lifestyle, and goals.

Here are two ways to do that.

Option 1: Use our Macros Calculator.

There are plenty of nutrition calculators out there, but ours is–;lowkey brag coming up–;special.

Most calculators determine your maintenance calorie needs using static formulas. Then, they simply chop 500 calories per day or lower the calories 10 to 20 percent below maintenance–;no matter how much weight someone wants to lose or in what time frame.

Our Macros Calculator does two things that are unique:

It factors in the date you want to achieve your goal by. For example, the time you plan to take to gain muscle or lose weight.
It accounts for metabolic adaptation. As you lose weight, you burn fewer calories. As you gain weight, you burn more calories. In other words, your body tries to compensate for weight loss by slowing your metabolism a bit, and for weight gain by speeding up your metabolism a bit. Other calculators don”;t consider this.

An illustration of the Precision Nutrition Macros Calculator for Calories and Portions surrounded by fruits, grains, fish, and vegetables.

Nutrition Calculator
How much should you eat? Let’s find out.

Get started

© Precision Nutrition

To use it, plug in your personal details and goals, and you”;ll get your estimated daily calorie needs.

If you use our calculator, you can just skip Step 2 below. Because along with your calorie estimates, you”;ll also get recommendations for your ideal macronutrient ratio–;or the option to customize it yourself.

Option 2: Use the chart below.

For people who love by-hand calculations, we”;ve got you.

First, find your activity level and goal below.

Then, multiply your bodyweight in pounds by the corresponding multiplier.

Daily calorie estimator

Client goal

Lose weight
Maintain weight
Gain weight

Lightly active
(<3 hrs / wk)

Moderately active
(3-7 hrs / wk)

Very active
(<3 hrs / wk)*

* Competitive athletes–;who are often active for over 15 hours per week–;have even higher needs.

For example, a lightly active 170-pound person who wants to lose weight would eat between 1,700 and 2,040 calories each day.

Women should generally start at the lower end of the range, and men at the higher end. Or, start in the middle and see what happens. If you”;re not seeing the desired results, adjust calorie intake up or down accordingly.

Note: These short-hand multipliers become less accurate as you move away from “;average”; body weights. For individuals who are very light, very large, or very muscular, our macros calculator above might be more accurate.

Step 2: Determine your macronutrient ratio.

Your macronutrient ratio (also called your “;macronutrient split”;) refers to how much of each macronutrient you”;re eating.

For most people, a good split is 15 to 35 percent protein, 40 to 60 percent carbohydrates, and 20 to 40 percent fat.

(This is just a framework. You can modify these proportions according to your preferences. And if you follow a high fat or high carb diet, your numbers may go outside these ranges.)

By adjusting your macro ratio based on your age, sex, activity levels, goals, and preferences, you can personalize your eating plan for your optimal health.

Use our Macros Calculator as mentioned above, or the formulas below.

We”;ll cover each macronutrient one at a time.


Your protein needs will depend on your weight, activity level, and goals.

We calculate protein first because it”;s essential for so many aspects of good health, including fat loss, muscle gain and maintenance, and athletic performance and recovery.

Use the charts below to figure out how much protein you need in grams per pound or kilogram of bodyweight.


Maintenance / improve health
Fat loss / body recomposition
Muscle gain

Lightly active
(<3 hours/week)
0.6 to 0.9
0.7 to 1.0
0.8 to 1.1

Moderately active
(3-7 hours/week)
0.7 to 1.0
0.8 to 1.1
0.9 to 1.2

Highly active
(>7 hours/week)
0.8 to 1.1
0.9 to 1.2
1.0 to 1.3


Maintenance / improve health
Fat loss / body recomposition
Muscle gain

Lightly active
(<3 hours/week)
1.3 to 2.0
1.5 to 2.2
1.8 to 2.4

Moderately active
(3-7 hours/week)
1.5 to 2.2
1.8 to 2.4
2.0 to 2.6

Highly active
(>7 hours/week)
1.8 to 2.4
2.0 to 2.6
2.2 to 2.9

If you”;re new to healthy eating or have a hard time getting protein into your diet, start with the lower end of the range.

If you”;re ready for more advanced nutrition protocols, or you”;re a dedicated exerciser, aim for the higher end.

So, a 170-pound nutrition beginner who”;s lightly active and wants to lose fat might choose the factor 0.8 g/lb from the range 0.7 to 1.0.

170 pounds x 0.8 = 136 grams of protein / day

A highly active 165-pound experienced lifter who wants to gain muscle might choose the factor 1.2 g/lb from the range 1.0 to 1.3.

165 pounds x 1.2 = 198 grams of protein / day

Note: For professional athletes, lean individuals trying to get very lean, and experienced lifters trying to minimize fat gain when adding body weight, protein requirements may go as high as 1.5 g/lb or 3.3 g/kg.

Fat & Carbohydrates

How much you eat of these two macros depends on, well, what you like.

First, figure out how many calories and what percentage of your macros you have left over after protein.

The formula looks like this (recall each gram of protein has four calories):

Total calories – (Total grams of protein x 4 calories) = Fat and carb calories

To get your protein percentage, divide calories from protein by total calories:

Calories from protein / Total calories = Percent of total calories from protein

Now, subtract your percent of protein from 100 to get your percent of fat and carbohydrates. (Home stretch, folks!)

100 – Percent of calories from protein = Percent of fat and carbs

Then you can decide how you want to split fat and carbs.

Here are some factors to consider:

In general, the more active you are, the greater your carbohydrate needs.
The minimum threshold for fat is 15 to 20 percent of total calories.
Research shows that low-fat and low-carb diets work equally as well for weight loss.1

Let”;s say, after a person subtracts their percent of calories from protein, they have 75 percent of calories left over to use on either fat or carbs. And they decide to do 50 percent carbs (4 calories per gram) and 25 percent fat (9 calories per gram).

Here”;s how to do the math:


Total calories x 0.5 = Carbohydrate calories

Carbohydrate calories / 4 = Grams of carbohydrates


Total calories x 0.25 = Fat calories

Fat calories / 9 = Grams of fat

Keto macros: How low carb can you go?

The ketogenic diet was originally developed to treat epilepsy. Physicians discovered that fasting reduced the frequency of seizures, but so did an extremely low-carb diet.

Eventually, bodybuilders and fitness enthusiasts got wind of the diet and thought, “;If the ketogenic diet mimics fasting, maybe I can get ripped without having to drop calories too low and lose all my gainz.”;

A couple of decades later, everyone is eating cauliflower-crust keto pizza. (It’s actually pretty good.)

In terms of the macros split, the ketogenic diet consists of about 70-90 percent calories from fat, with the remaining 10-30 percent of calories coming from a mix of carbohydrates and protein combined.

(For comparison, a standard “;low carb”; diet is about 50 percent fat, 30 percent protein, and 20 percent carbohydrate.)

Unless you”;re trying to stay in ketosis for medical reasons (to reduce seizures), less strict versions of the keto diet–;which allow higher amounts of protein and carbs–;are more sustainable for most people, especially athletes trying to maintain performance and muscle mass.

(Interested in trying–;or coaching–;the ketogenic diet? Here”;s your primer: The Keto diet plan: Your complete how-to guide.)

How to track your macros

Once you”;ve determined your macros, you”;ll want to track them to ensure that you”;re meeting your macronutrient goals each day.

Most people use an app like MyFitnessPal, Cronometer, or Macros+.

There are a couple of advantages to using an app:

You have a quick reference guide for how much of each macronutrient a serving of a food contains
The app will add up your macros for you (and let you know how many you have left for the day)

Or, you can keep track of your macros by hand, using a paper journal and a nutrition database like the USDA”;s Food Data Central or SELFNutritionData.

With either approach, record the foods you”;ve eaten at each meal, along with how many grams of each macronutrient each food contains.

Many people find it helps to plan meals the night before or the morning of. This helps you strategize ahead of time, building meals that meet your macro goals, instead of choosing food reactively when you”;re starving and–;oh man, that giant burrito looks good.

Most apps also allow you to save meals. So if you tend to repeat meals every once and awhile, having pre-entered and -calculated food combinations can make tracking more efficient.

If you plan on dining out, logging ahead of time can be a good strategy for sticking to your macros. Check out the menu before you get to the restaurant, and do your best to estimate the macros of the meal you”;ll order.

5 common questions about macro tracking

Once you”;ve figured out your macro numbers, you might feel like you have the key to all your future health and fitness goals.

Until you actually have to eat.

“;Wait…how do I do this in real life?!”;

Here are some of the most common questions people have about tracking macros, and what to do.

Question 1: What do you eat on a macro diet?

As you get used to tracking your macros, you”;ll learn which foods are high in protein, carbs, and fat.

But one thing macronutrient counting doesn”;t take into account is micronutrients (vitamins and minerals, usually found in whole, minimally processed foods).

Micronutrients are necessary for good health. And though you probably could hit your macros by crushing pizza, french fries, and protein shakes, we wouldn”;t suggest it.

As a macro counter, it”;s up to you to ensure you eat a diet that meets your macro- and micronutrient needs.

One simple way to do that?

Hit your macros primarily through a variety of minimally processed foods that are naturally rich in micronutrients: lean proteins, fruits and vegetables, whole grains and legumes, nuts and seeds, and pressed oils.

If you”;re not sure where to start, check out the graphic below. You can see that while some foods fit neatly into certain macronutrient categories, other foods are more of a mix.

(For a more detailed version of the above image, check out our handout: The Macros Chart.)

Question 2: How do I measure my food?

It”;s not quite Sophie”;s choice, but people still wonder:

Should I measure food by volume (with a measuring cup) or by weight (with a food scale)?

Use a food scale for the best results. Measuring by weight will always be more accurate than measuring by volume.

For example, depending on whether they”;re whole or chopped, a cup will fit about 100 grams of almonds. But if those almonds are finely chopped, they”;re easier to pack in, and a cup may fit 200 grams.

On a scale, 100 grams will always be a 100 grams, no matter if the almonds are whole or chopped.

But if your only option is measuring cups and spoons, that”;s ok. Just be sure–;especially in the beginning–;to measure everything, rather than eyeball it.

People tend to overestimate what a “;tablespoon”; or “;cup”; looks like, sometimes unintentionally doubling their portion.

Note: Cooking certain foods like grains, pasta, and meat, can change their weight and volume. So, if you measure a food raw, log it raw. If you measure it cooked, log it cooked.

If weighing and measuring your food feels tedious and soul-shrivelling, there are other tracking options.

For example, you could track your intake using hand portions. Our Macros Calculator provides hand portions too, so you don”;t have to meticulously measure everything (unless you want to).

(Learn all about hand portions here: How your fist, palm, cupped hand, and thumb can help you avoid the hassle of counting calories.)

Question 3: How important is it to precisely hit my macros?

Consistency will get you the results you want.

But that doesn”;t mean you have to hit your macros exactly every single day.

If you”;re having a bad week (or year) remember that 50 percent consistency is better than giving up completely.

(Need proof that you don”;t need to be perfect to get results? Read: One million data points show what it REALLY takes to change your body.)

If you feel like you”;re really flailing, just prioritize meeting your protein goals each day. A diet higher in protein will help reduce hunger, preserve muscle, and help improve overall health.

Overall, aim for consistency over perfection. Try to get close to your daily macro goals, but don”;t force yourself to eat if you”;re not hungry.

And if you”;d rather have half an avocado than a bowl of oatmeal? Don”;t stress about swapping fat for carbs.

Question 4: Can you use macros for weight loss?

If your goal is to lose fat, it”;s a good idea to use some kind of method to track food intake, at least for a period of time.

Many people use calories. But macros account for calories, and have the added value of telling you a bit more about food quality (like the amount of protein, fat, or carbohydrate in a food).

Especially for weight loss–;where the goal is usually to lose fat but maintain lean mass–;tracking macros can help ensure you get enough muscle-preserving protein while still eating fewer calories than you burn.

Use the protein recommendations chart above to find the protein range for your goal and activity level. If your goal is to lose fat, minimize hunger, and preserve muscle mass, choose the upper end of your range.

From there, figure out your carb and fat allowances, remembering that to lose fat, you have to eat fewer calories than you burn–;also called a calorie deficit–;for a period of time.

Question 5: How do I track alcohol?

Just because alcohol isn”;t included in typical macro plans doesn”;t mean you can”;t have it.

But you should track it, since it contains calories.

The most common way to do this is to use some of your fat or carbohydrate grams to account for the alcohol.

For instance, if you”;re having a beer, 12 ounces is approximately 155 calories.2

If you want to exchange it for carbohydrates, do the following equation:

155 calories / 4 calories per gram = 38.75 grams

So you could log your lager as 39 grams of carbs.

Or if you”;re having a glass of red wine, a 5-ounce serving is 127 calories.3

To use fat grams for that glass:

127 calories / 9 calories per gram = 14.1 grams

So you could log your vino as 14 grams of fat.

Or, just use a combination of carbs and fat, by dividing the calories however you see fit and repeating the steps above.

What to do next

Ready to get started? Here are some things to keep in mind before you begin.

Know what you hope to accomplish.

Macro counting works well for people with specific goals.

As you progress towards or even achieve your goal, consider if you want to continue counting macros. Some people enjoy counting them indefinitely, but most eventually get tired of tracking.

Truth is, macro counting is just one of many nutrition strategies you can add to your toolbox.

(Want another awesome strategy? Read: The 30-day eating challenge that can blow your mind–;and transform your body.)

Treat macro counting as an experiment.

The first macro split you try might work great. Or not.

Whether you succeed or fail, don”;t use it as a proxy for your self-worth.

Gather your data, and just see what happens. Stay open-minded, and use the outcome of your experiment to inform your next choices.

Did you enjoy tracking macros, and feel closer to your goals? Cool! Keep going.

Did all the measuring and counting feel too finicky and left you stressed out? Try a different way of improving your nutrition.

(And if you REALLY loved working with macros, you might like our continuing education course: How to Coach a Macros-Based Diet.)

It”;s okay if macro counting isn”;t for you.

Full disclosure: At Precision Nutrition, macronutrient counting isn”;t our go-to method of regulating food intake. At least, not for most people.

Macro counting works–;especially for high-level, advanced goals, like preparing for a physique competition or a major athletic event.

But despite the fact that macro counting can be super flexible, it”;s also a lot of work. Especially compared to other methods of “;watching what you eat,”; which can be just as effective.

For most people and most goals, there are less labor-intensive ways to get results. Here are some ideas:

(Want to compare different methods of food tracking? Read: Macros vs. calories vs. portions vs. intuitive eating.)

Remember that we eat food, not nutrients.

Food is so much more than grams of protein, carbohydrates, and fat. And meals aren”;t just a chance to hit your macro goals.

Meals are also an opportunity to experience pleasure, spend time caring for your body, and share with people you love.

Every meal is a chance to connect–;with yourself and with others. And every food choice is an opportunity to direct, shape, and remake your health.



Click here to view the information sources referenced in this article.

1. Sacks, Frank M., George A. Bray, Vincent J. Carey, Steven R. Smith, Donna H. Ryan, Stephen D. Anton, Katherine McManus, et al. 2009. “;Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates.“; The New England Journal of Medicine 360 (9): 859-;73.

2. “;FoodData Central.”; n.d. Accessed July 15, 2021.

3. “;FoodData Central.”; n.d. Accessed July 15, 2021.

If you”;re a coach, or you want to be…;

Learning how to coach clients, patients, friends, or family members through healthy eating and lifestyle changes–;in a way that”;s personalized for their unique body, preferences, and circumstances–;is both an art and a science.

If you”;d like to learn more about both, consider the Precision Nutrition Level 1 Certification.

The post How to count (and track) macros for fat loss, muscle gain, and better health appeared first on Precision Nutrition.

Read more:

Gymnast Jordan Chiles Defends BFF Simone Biles’ Decision to Withdraw From Tokyo Olympics

Gymnast Jordan Chiles Defends BFF Simone Biles’ Decision to Withdraw From Tokyo Olympics

Gymnast Jordan Chiles Defends BFF Simone Biles' Decision to Withdraw From Tokyo Olympics

Jordan Chiles has Simone Biles‘ back.

The 20-year-old gymnast came to the defense of the 24-year-old superstar’s decision to withdraw from the 2020 Tokyo Olympics in an interview on Today.

Simone has made plenty of headlines for her decision to withdraw due to her mental health, and she’s also got plenty of support from her fellow gymnasts, including one of her best friends.

Click inside to read more…

“I was there for her, I supported her. I did try to tell her, ‘Look, you know how to do everything and this is you. This is your moment. It’s all up to you,’” Jordan said.

“I really can’t say a lot because she has to tell her own story, but all I know is I’m going to support her no matter what. I am her teammate. I’m her best friend.”

“She is my ride or die. I will forever be by her side,” she added.

I honestly can tell you that she knows who she is, so when she goes out there, she’s already done this before, she’s already been an Olympian multiple times. I mean, she’s the GOAT for the reason. When she knows what she has to do, she will take herself into that spot of, ‘OK, look I don’t want to harm anybody.’”

“We all understood what she was going through. We all understood everything that was happening. We just support her,” she continued.

“She’s Simone for a reason, and if she puts her mind to something…;She’s not a quitter. You will never see Simone just go out there and not do what she knows she could do.”

There’s an update regarding Simone‘s participation in the Olympics overall.

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Simone Biles Reveals What She Told Her Olympics Teammates After Withdrawing From Event & How They Reacted to the Decision

Simone Biles Reveals What She Told Her Olympics Teammates After Withdrawing From Event & How They Reacted to the Decision

Simone Biles Reveals What She Told Her Olympics Teammates After Withdrawing From Event & How They Reacted to the Decision

Simone Biles withdrew from the team finals event in gymnastics at the 2021 Tokyo Olympics earlier today (June 27), and later she revealed it was due to her mental health.

Now, the 24-year-old star athlete has revealed what she told her three remaining teammates – Sunisa Lee, Jordan Chiles and Grace McCallum – after she decided to withdraw, and how they reacted to the news.

Click inside to see what Simone Biles told them after she had to withdraw from the competition…

The advice Simone said she gave her teammates was, “You have done all the training, you can do this without me and it will be just fine.”

“They were freaking out. They were like, crying, and I was like, ‘You guys need to relax, you’re going to be fine without me, go out there and kick some butt, just like we’ve done in training. And just lay it out on the floor and see what happens!’” Simone added.

“For me, I’m proud for how the girls stepped up and did what they had to do. I owe this to the girls, it has nothing to do with me,” she added. “I am very proud of them.”

Team USA placed in second and won the silver medal.

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Signs of COVID Injection Failure Mount

Signs of COVID Injection Failure Mount

In recent weeks, a number of signs have emerged indicating the COVID-19 injections cannot put an end to COVID-19 outbreaks. In the July 15, 2021, video report above, Dr. John Campbell reviews data coming out of the U.K. On a side note, I do not agree with everything Campbell says in this video, such as promoting mask wearing, for example. It”;s his data review that is of interest here.

As noted in the video, as of July 15, 87.5% of the adult population in the U.K. had received one dose of COVID-19 “;vaccine”; and 67.1% had received two. Yet symptomatic cases among partially and fully “;vaccinated”; are now suddenly on the rise, with an average of 15,537 new infections a day being detected, a 40% increase from the week before.

Meanwhile, the daily average of new symptomatic cases among unvaccinated is 17,588, down 22% from the week before. This suggests the wave among unvaccinated has peaked and that natural herd immunity has set in, while “;vaccinated”; individuals are becoming more prone to infection.

U.K. hospitals are confirming double-injected patients are part of the patient population being treated for active COVID infection, and two cities have issued public warnings to their residents, letting them know they may end up in the hospital even if they”;ve been double-injected against COVID-19.

“;There are currently 15 patients in hospital with COVID across the Trust; last month there were none,”; The Yorkshire Post reported1 July 9, 2021. An undisclosed number of them had received two doses of COVID “;vaccine.”;

“;The message I would like to share with you all is that some of their patients are double vaccinated,”; Heather McNair, chief nurse at York and Scarborough Teaching Hospitals, told the Post.2

“;This is a disease that can still affect you and still make you poorly when you are double vaccinated. We have got a ward at the moment full of COVID patients in our hospital and that is not going away anytime soon.”;

While the number of hospitalized COVID patients doubled in a single week, the total number was still well below the number reported in January 2021 –; a statistic Amanda Bloor, accountable officer for the NHS North Yorkshire Clinical Commissioning Group, takes as proof that the injection program is “;having the anticipated impact around reducing the risk of death and reducing serious illness.”;

COVID Surges in Countries with Highest Injection Rates

I wouldn”;t be so quick to assume lower hospitalization rates in the middle of summer are a sign that the injections are having a positive impact. We also have data3 showing that countries with the highest COVID injection rates are also experiencing the greatest upsurges in cases, while countries with the lowest injection rates have the lowest caseloads. This trend “;is worrying me quite a bit,”; Dr. Robert Malone, inventor of the mRNA vaccine technology, said in a July 16, 2021, Tweet.4

daily new confirmed covid 19 cases per million people

share of people who received at least one dose of covid 19 vaccine

You can view more data in this thread, posted by Corona Realism.5 Cyprus, where more than 51% of residents have received the jab, now has the highest case count in the world. Interestingly, the outbreak on the British Navy ships –; which I”;ll cover further below –; occurred shortly after a stopover in Cyprus.6

cyprus covid cases vs vaccinated population

Bhutan offers an interesting glimpse into the effects of mass COVID “;vaccination”;. They managed to get 64% of residents injected in just one week, starting March 27, 2021, and almost immediately, there was a rapid uptick in cases.

In the first graph below, you see the extraordinarily rapid injection rate in Bhutan, going from zero to 64% in a matter of days. In the second graph, you can see the effect on cases in the weeks that followed. They went from near-zero cases at the outset of the injection campaign, to a high of more than 400 cases per million in the weeks following.

share of people who received at least one dose vaccine

biweekly confirmed covid 19 cases per million people

Case Counts Lowest in Low-“;Vaxxed”; Nations

On the flipside, we see the lowest number of positive COVID tests congregated in nations that also have the lowest rates of COVID “;vaccine”; uptake. While it”;s not a 100% clear-cut correlation, it is a trend, and we also have to remember that the PCR tests have issues that complicate any attempt at data analysis.

biweekly changed in confirmed covid 19 cases

The main problem is that if you run the PCR test at too-high a cycle threshold (CT), you end up with an inordinate number of false positives.7,8,9 The CT refers to the point in the test where a positive result is obtained. A CT of 35 or higher will give you a 97% false positive rate.10

For maximum accuracy, you”;d have to use a CT of 17.11 It”;s unclear what all these countries are using, but it”;s unlikely they”;re using a CT below 20 as a matter of routine. This means most case counts around the world will be falsely elevated.

This is particularly true for unvaccinated individuals in the U.S., as their tests are recommended to be run at a CT of 40, whereas patients that have received a COVID injection will have their COVID tests run at a CT below 28. This makes it appear as though the case rate is higher among the unvaccinated, when in reality it”;s just an artifact from highly biased testing and few of these falsely positive “;cases”; are actually sick.

Looking at the hospitalization rate for confirmed COVID-19 in the U.S.,12 we see that the number of people sick enough to require medical attention is nowhere near what it was during the winter months of 2021, and since only 5.9% of American adults had been injected with two doses as of February 21, 2021,13 we can conclude that the injections did not cause this rapid decline in hospitalizations.

new admissions of patients with confirmed covid 19 united states

The best explanation for the decline in both cases and hospitalizations after the rollout of COVID shots is the emergence of natural herd immunity from previous infections.

In a July 12, 2021, STAT News article,14 Robert M. Kaplan, Professor Emeritus at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, calculated that by April 2021, the natural immunity rate was above 55% in 10 U.S. states, and in most of those same states, new infections were in rapid decline as early as the end of 2020, at a time when only a tiny fraction of the population had received their shots.

CDC Doesn”;t Track All Breakthrough Cases

We must also remember that the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are artificially driving down case rates, hospitalization rates and death rates for “;vaccinated”; Americans by selectively tracking breakthrough cases. They only track and report breakthrough cases where the patient is hospitalized or dies.15 They do not count mild cases, even if they have a positive test result.

A number of media outlets have expressed concerns about this biased tracking and reporting. As noted in Harvard Health,16 the CDC”;s strategy prevents us from ascertaining whether one injection is more or less effective than another. It can also hide manufacturing problems and prevent us from determining whether timing of the second dose might have a bearing on effectiveness, as well as a number of other things.

Business Insider17 pointed out that not tracking all breakthrough cases makes it more difficult to determine how dangerous the Delta variant really is. NPR expresses a similar view, stating that “;Critics argue the strategy could miss important information that could leave the U.S. vulnerable, including early signs of new variants that are better at outsmarting the vaccines.”;18

Even Complete “;Vaccine”; Coverage Won”;t Stop Infections

July 14, 2021, BBC News reported19 100 fully injected crewmembers had tested positive onboard the British Defense aircraft carrier HMS Queen Elizabeth. It”;s unclear whether any of them actually have symptoms. According to British defense secretary Ben Wallace, mitigation efforts include mask wearing, social distancing and a track and trace system. He made no mention of actual treatment for acute infection.

Other warships are also reporting onboard outbreaks, although Wallace did not offer any details about them. The fleet is currently in the Indian Ocean and plans to continue the 28-week deployment, with Japan as their destination. BBC News said the queen and prime minister had been onboard the flagship shortly before it sailed.

This case offers a sobering view into the effectiveness of these gene modifying shots, as the HMS Queen Elizabeth now has a case rate of 1 in 1620 –; the highest case rate recorded so far, that I know of. Yet 100% of the crew has been double-injected. This tells you that the vaccine-induced herd immunity narrative is a fairytale. These injections apparently cannot prevent COVID-19 even if 100% of a given population gets them!

Israeli Data Indicate Pfizer “;Vaccine”; Failure

Data from Israel also offer a dismal view of COVID-19 injections. Israel used Pfizer”;s mRNA injection exclusively, so this gives us a good idea of its effectiveness. Overall, it looks like an abysmal failure, as a majority of serious cases and deaths are now occurring among those injected with two doses. The following is a screenshot of graphs posted on Twitter.21

The red is unvaccinated, yellow refers to partially “;vaccinated”; and green fully “;vaccinated”; with two doses. The charts speak for themselves.

new hospitalizations

new severe covid 19 patients

deaths trend

Overall, it doesn”;t appear as though COVID-19 gene modification injections have the ability to effectively eliminate COVID-19 outbreaks, and this makes sense, seeing how it”;s mathematically impossible for them to do so.

The four available COVID shots in the U.S. provide an absolute risk reduction between just 0.7% and 1.3%.22,23 (Efficacy rates of 67% to 95% all refer to the relative risk reduction.) Meanwhile, the noninstitutionalized infection fatality ratio across age groups is a mere 0.26%.24 Since the absolute risk that needs to be overcome is lower than the absolute risk reduction these injections can provide, mass vaccination simply cannot have a favorable impact.

CDC Tries to Hide COVID Jab Death Toll

They can, however, cause unnecessary deaths among otherwise healthy individuals. Tragically, the CDC is doing everything it can to hide just how great that death toll is. In what appears to be a deliberate attempt at deception, the CDC “;rolled back”; its July 19, 2021, adverse events report to statistics from the previous week. I”;ll explain. Take note of the specific dates and death totals in each of the following excerpts. The July 13 report reads as follows:25

“;Reports of death after COVID-19 vaccination are rare. More than 334 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered in the United States from December 14, 2020, through July 12, 2021. During this time, VAERS received 6,079 reports of death (0.0018%) among people who received a COVID-19 vaccine.”;

The original July 19 report (saved on Wayback) initially read as follows:26

“;Reports of death after COVID-19 vaccination are rare. More than 338 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered in the United States from December 14, 2020, through July 19, 2021. During this time, VAERS received 12,313 reports of death (0.0036%) among people who received a COVID-19 vaccine.”;

Please note, the death toll more than doubled in a single week. That original July 19 report was then changed to this. The date on the report is still July 19:27

“;Reports of death after COVID-19 vaccination are rare. More than 334 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered in the United States from December 14, 2020, through July 13, 2021. During this time, VAERS received 6,079 reports of death (0.0018%) among people who received a COVID-19 vaccine.”;

At a time when accuracy and transparency is of such critical importance for informed consent, it”;s beyond shocking to see the CDC engage in this kind of deception. Yet here we are. We”;re now living in a world where crucial public health data is being manipulated at every turn. For this reason, looking at larger trends such as those reviewed above may offer a more dependable picture of what the real-world consequences of these shots are.

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Health coach salaries: Here’s what you can expect to make in a year.

Health coach salaries: Here’s what you can expect to make in a year.

Reviewed by Toni Bauer, PN2, NBC-HWC

People ask: “;What”;s the average health coach salary?”;

But what most folks really want to know something else:

Can you make a good living doing this?

In other words, should you:

Invest in a nutrition- or health-coaching certification?
Launch a part-time coaching business on the side?
Quit your job in another field so you can focus 100 percent on coaching?

Here, you”;ll find answers, so you can make these important career decisions with confidence.

For this article, we tapped the expertise of some of the most successful coaches who”;ve earned our Level 1 certification, which, by the way, is recognized by many as the industry”;s leading certification.

You”;ll hear from:

▶ Someone who left a six-figure corporate executive job–;and then found a way to make even more as a health coach. He shares exactly what he did to get where he is today.

▶ Several founders of expanding health-coaching companies who hire full-time coaches. You”;ll learn what they look for in job candidates.

▶ A man who netted more than 50 regular clients during his first two years of coaching by finetuning his niche and raising his rates.

Thanks to their insights, industry reports, and our own internal survey data, you”;ll discover:

Average annual salary ranges for full-time and part-time coaches

An income calculator created especially for coaches

Three business strategies that separate average-earning coaches from those who are super earners

Health coaching: Is it a viable career?

Let”;s get real: This economy isn”;t great for some job seekers.

But if you type “;health coach”; into a job search site, you”;ll end up with thousands of results. It”;s no wonder that, this year, LinkedIn listed health coaching as one of the fastest growing careers.

Driving this growth: the healthcare industry, which increasingly taps health coaches to motivate patients to practice a range of habits, saving between $286 and $412 per patient per month in insurance costs.1

(FYI, throughout this article, we quote pricing in US dollars.)

But medical practices and insurers aren”;t the only people looking for health, nutrition, and wellness coaches. Others include:

Healthcare practices, such as physical therapy and chiropractic offices
Lifestyle companies that offer coaching as part of a larger package of options
Fitness centers and spas
Coaching apps
Established coaches who have more clients than they can serve on their own

In other words, now”;s a great time to break in.

Even better, the pay is more than decent.

Your health coach salary, however, will depend on whether you run your own business or work for someone else. Let”;s start with self-employed coaches.

What”;s the average self-employed health coach salary?

We calculated these yearly rates based on data collected from hundreds of coaches. Keep in mind, these numbers are averages: Some coaches make less; some make more.

A lot more.

Estimated yearly income: $40,000 to $240,000+

Okay, that’s obviously a huge range. As with any business, the amount of money you make depends on many factors, including how much you charge each client, your levels of interest and motivation, the time you can commit, and the results you can deliver.

To see all the possibilities for how much you can make as a coach based on your unique circumstances, check out the calculator below.


✓ You”;re the boss. You set your rates, hours, niche, packages…; everything.

✓ You”;re in charge of your earning potential. The more clients you take on, the more you can earn. And if you attract more clients than you can handle? You have the option of hiring coaches to work for you.

What”;s the average health coach salary if you work for a company?

If self-employment isn”;t right for you, there”;s another option. You can work for a company that employs health and nutrition coaches. And while you won”;t have as much control over your earning potential, you can still make a great living.

The salaries listed below are based on industry reports, our internal data, and interviews with several coaching companies. Know that these ranges are averages. Some companies pay more; others less.

Full-time salaries: $40,000 to $75,000

Part-time salaries: $20,000 to $40,000


✓ You can focus completely on what you love: coaching. “;It”;s incredible for people who love the coaching side of coaching, but don”;t love the entrepreneurial or administrative side, such as billing, lead generation, and marketing,”; says Molly Galbraith, founder of Girls Gone Strong and author of Strong Women Lift Each Other Up.

✓ You”;ll usually use already-developed protocols and lessons to guide you through the coaching process. “;If you”;re a coach who isn”;t quite ready to go out on your own, it can function like training wheels,”; says Galbraith.

✓ Real, restful, 100 percent work-free vacations exist. Because you”;re often not the only coach on staff, you have others to cover for you when you want to put your phone on silent.

What companies look for when hiring new health coaches

Below you”;ll find what several hiring managers told us they like to see in job candidates. Ideal candidates:

✓ Possess a nutrition or health coaching certification (or are willing to get one).

✓ Have a passion for helping people.

✓ Exude the qualities of a “;good”; coach, such as emotional intelligence, empathy, active listening, professionalism, and communication skills.

You may wonder: Do you need coaching experience?

For some companies, yes.

Others, like Stronger U Nutrition, are willing to hire and train new coaches, especially if they”;re coming from a complementary career such as the service industry, human resources, or organizational leadership, says founder Mike Doehla, PN1, a former human resources manager.

“;This was me,”; he says, “;I was in another career before I became a coach. People can break into this later in life and have a fruitful career.”;

Want to earn six figures? Use this calculator to estimate your health coach salary.

If you’re a self-employed coach, our Health Coach Salary Calculator uses your income goals to help you determine:

How many clients you can maintain in the time you have available to coach.
How much time you can spend with each client based on the type of coaching you want to provide.
What you”;ll need to to charge each client per month to meet your income goals.

Here”;s the really cool part: The calculator will estimate everything else you need to take into account (expenses, taxes, extra cash goals) and how they affect your bottom line.

Once you get your results, feel free to tinker with the numbers. Want to have fewer clients? Bump up your price per client. Think you could charge a little more and keep your client numbers the same? Go for it!

Bottom line: This calculator will help you wrap your head around what needs to happen in order to make your health coach salary dreams a reality.

Health Coach Salary Calculator
How much money can you earn? Let’s find out.

Get started

© Precision Nutrition

Health Coach Salary Calculator

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